Heart Burial Urns. from Sojourn, at the Andrews Gallery, Feb 2018.
Porcelain, cone 11; soda fired in reduction. Wheel thrown with slip trailing, water etching and pulled handles. Heart burial, is the process of interring the heart (and sometimes other viscera) separately from the body. This ritual was popular in medieval and early post-medieval Central Europe, but it is a tradition that continues today (Otto von Habsburg requested a heart burial in 2011). Mary Shelley, author of ‘Frankenstein' reportedly also kept her husbands heart in a silk bag on her desk. Heart burial is practiced for variety of reasons, including practicality — when one dies on their travels and the whole corpse would be difficult to transport — as well as as a symbol of affections, courage, and for other metaphorical reasons. Frederic Chopin’s heart burial monument has the inscription: "For where your treasure is, there will your heart be also.” Other notable heart burial monuments are the Monument of Rene de Chalon and the heart burial of Louis XVII.
I designed these urns for the purpose of heart burial, so they are just a bit smaller than urns for cremains. The form is loosely inspired by the anatomical shape of a human heart. I have given an urn to my wife to wait for my own heart.
In the 18th century, the miasma theory of disease was widely accepted. The theory (replaced with germ theory in the 1880s) held that epidemics and disease were spread by poisonous smells and “bad air”, often called night air. Pierced urns were commonly filled with aromatic mixtures of potpourri or flowers to guard against the smell of decaying bodies, rotting food and other noxious smells. A pretty futile gesture, ultimately these urns provided some peace of mind more than any protection against rampant disease.
As Above So Below
Lost Age Tableware
Cone 10 Reduction
SOJOURN, Statement. Andrews Gallery, Williamsburg, Va. Feb 2018
It has been a fantastic experience to travel across the United States to continue developing the quality of my work and teaching. My time in Williamsburg will be short, as my Visiting Professor in Ceramics position is due to end after the semester. I have attempted to take inspiration from my peers, students and experiences while I live and work here. It is particularly clear to me that there is a tangible dialogue between the past and present in Williamsburg. I see the tired “ghosts” of dead colonists picking up a six pack of Miller and smokes after Colonial Williamsburg closing hours as they transition back to modern life. Certainly, I have become acutely aware during my research that my sojourn — my temporary stay — applies not only to my position at William and Mary, but also to the temporary nature of my status as an alive person that is able to do things and experience stuff.
I have been interested for the last few years in 18th and 19th century European production porcelain from factories like Staffordshire Wedgwood, Meissen and Sevres. These historical pieces, with their intricately flourished handles, dramatically elevated bases, and optimistic precious metal gilding ultimately represent a criterion for perfection (and associated values) that seem a bit empty in contemporary society. In my research for Sojourn, I was inspired by the story of the “Poor Potter” of Yorktown and by the work of the late Willam and Mary professor of anthropology and archaeologist Dr. Norman F. Barka who (with the help of staff and students) pieced together the story of the ”Poor Potter” William Rogers together from shard pile “waster pits” and written records in the 1960s and 1970s.
Probably one of the largest and earliest producers of stoneware in the colonies, William Rogers’ work would have possibly been traded as far as the West Indies. He is celebrated today as a sort of mysterious outlaw potter that subverted British laws governing colonial industrial development, helping to lead the path to an economically independent Virginia. He was dubbed the “Poor Potter” in a 1732 report sent by Virginia's Lieutenant Governor in an effort to downplay the scale and success of his operation so that it could continue unimpeded. The stoneware had a beautiful salt glazed “orange peel” quality, was fundamentally utilitarian in nature, and would have been found in the same estates that displayed ornate European imported work.
In our contemporary understanding of what it means to be a potter in America, with the value of the work tied to the labor and practice of making the objects—Rogers was not a potter. The majority of works from this period were made by slaves and indentured servants, and the vast majority of pieces sold by Rogers and others were unsigned as a result of literacy being forbidden for this class of makers. I feel a profound nagging discomfort thinking about these artists, whose exceptional work was appreciated at the time in much the way we regard ceramic objects from Ikea, and whose identities will forever remain unknown (with the exception of those with extensive arrest records). I empathize with the frustrations expressed by Dr. Barka regarding lost records and information and the apparent futility of piecing together a tradition that has vanished orally, was primarily unattributed, and was seldom as well documented as Rogers’ operation was.
The centerpiece of this exhibition, Garniture for Lost American Labors was designed with analogous materials and methods to these 18th century American stoneware pieces, though elevated in status and decoration as a tribute to American futility, labor and beauty.
By referencing these historical pieces, I desire to emphasize change; the fickle nature of established meaning as it is inevitably lost or retooled to maintain relevance. In this way, Sojourn speaks to the ebb and flow of cultures and ideas, the labors of humans realized and subsequently lost as has demonstrably happened innumerable times in the course of human history. These works are, in essence, a call to bear witness to the failures, destructive forces, and distasteful origins that are integral to the endeavors of creating pots and investigating meaning as a human today.